Three-dimensional microfabrication using two-photon activated chemistry

S. M. Kuebler, B. H. Cumpston, S. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, J. Rockel, M. Rumi, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


Photochemical reactions which can be activated by the simultaneous absorption of two photons provide a means for single-step fabrication of complex three-dimensional microstructures. These types of structures are needed for a wide range of applications, including microfluidics, electrooptics, and micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS). We have shown that chromophores can be engineered to have both large two-photon absorptivities as well as an efficient means for activating chemical processes, such as radical polymerization, subsequent to the photoexcitation. Chromophores designed following this strategy two-photon-activate the radical polymerization of acrylates at lower incident laser powers than conventional UV initiators. Efficient two-photon photopolymer resins based on these chromophores were used in the fabrication of complex microarchitectures, such as photonic bandgap structures and tapered waveguides. We have devised a strategy which allows this approach to be extended to other chemical systems.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)97-105
Number of pages9
JournalProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
StatePublished - Jan 1 2000
EventMicro- and Nano-Photonic Materials and Devices - San Jose, CA, USA
Duration: Jan 27 2000Jan 28 2000

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