Three-Dimensional Integration of Black Phosphorus Photodetector with Silicon Photonics and Nanoplasmonics

Che Chen, Nathan Youngblood, Ruoming Peng, Daehan Yoo, Daniel A. Mohr, Timothy W. Johnson, Sang Hyun Oh, Mo Li

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

103 Scopus citations


We demonstrate the integration of a black phosphorus photodetector in a hybrid, three-dimensional architecture of silicon photonics and metallic nanoplasmonics structures. This integration approach combines the advantages of the low propagation loss of silicon waveguides, high-field confinement of a plasmonic nanogap, and the narrow bandgap of black phosphorus to achieve high responsivity for detection of telecom-band, near-infrared light. Benefiting from an ultrashort channel (∼60 nm) and near-field enhancement enabled by the nanogap structure, the photodetector shows an intrinsic responsivity as high as 10 A/W afforded by internal gain mechanisms, and a 3 dB roll-off frequency of 150 MHz. This device demonstrates a promising approach for on-chip integration of three distinctive photonic systems, which, as a generic platform, may lead to future nanophotonic applications for biosensing, nonlinear optics, and optical signal processing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)985-991
Number of pages7
JournalNano letters
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 8 2017

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (Award No. FA9550-14-1-0277; C.C., N.Y., R.P., M.L.) and the National Science Foundation (Award No. ECCS-1351002 for C.C., N.Y., R.P. M.L.; ECCS-1610333 for D.Y., D.A.M., T.W.J., S.-H.O.). D.A.M. also acknowledges support from the NIH Biotechnology Training Grant (T32 GM008347). Device fabrication was carried out at the University of Minnesota Nanofabrication Center which receives partial support from the NSF through the National Nanotechnology Coordinated Infrastructure (NNCI) program. The authors also used resources at the Characterization Facility, which is a member of the NSF-funded Materials Research Facilities Network via the NSF MRSEC program.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 American Chemical Society.


  • black phosphorus
  • extraordinary optical transmission
  • nanogap
  • photodetector
  • plasmonics
  • Silicon photonics

MRSEC Support

  • Shared

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Letter


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