Three-dimensional drawings in isometric conditions: relation between geometry and kinematics

Joe T. Massey, Joseph T. Lurito, Giuseppe Pellizzer, Apostolos P. Georgopoulos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

70 Scopus citations


Normal human subjects grasped a 3-D isometric handle with an otherwise unrestrained, pronated hand and exerted forces continuously to draw circles, ellipses and lemniscates (figure-eights) in specified planes in the presence or absence of a 3-D visual force-feedback cursor and a visual template. Under any of these conditions and in all subjects, a significant positive correlation was observed between the instantaneous curvature and angular velocity, and between the instantaneous radius of curvature and tangential velocity; that is, when the force trajectory was most curved, the tangential velocity was lowest. This finding is similar to that obtained by Viviani and Terzuolo (1982) for 2-D drawing arm movements and supports the notion that central constraints give rise to the relation between geometric and kinematic parameters of the trajectory.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)685-690
Number of pages6
JournalExperimental Brain Research
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jan 1992


  • Force
  • Human
  • Kinematics
  • Trajectory


Dive into the research topics of 'Three-dimensional drawings in isometric conditions: relation between geometry and kinematics'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this