To identify loci for age at menarche, we performed a meta-analysis of 32 genome-wide association studies in 87,802 women of European descent, with replication in up to 14,731 women. In addition to the known loci at LIN28B (P = 5.4 × 10 -60) and 9q31.2 (P = 2.2 × 10 -33), we identified 30 new menarche loci (all P < 5 × 10 -8) and found suggestive evidence for a further 10 loci (P < 1.9 × 10 -6). The new loci included four previously associated with body mass index (in or near FTO, SEC16B, TRA2B and TMEM18), three in or near other genes implicated in energy homeostasis (BSX, CRTC1 and MCHR2) and three in or near genes implicated in hormonal regulation (INHBA, PCSK2 and RXRG). Ingenuity and gene-set enrichment pathway analyses identified coenzyme A and fatty acid biosynthesis as biological processes related to menarche timing.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Academy of Finland (Finnish Centre of Excellence in Complex Disease Genetics 129680, 120315, 129287, 129494); Affymetrix (N02-HL-6-4278); Agency of Science, Technology and Research of Singapore (A*STAR); Althingi (the Icelandic Parliament); American Heart Association (0855082E); Amgen; Augustinus Foundation; Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (241944, 339462, 389927, 389875, 389891, 389892, 389938, 442915, 442981, 496739, 552485, 552498, 619667); Australian Research Council (A7960034, A79801419, A79906588, DP0212016, DP0343921, DP0770096); Baltimore Veterans Administration Medical Center Geriatrics Research; Canadian Institutes of Health Research (grant ID 166067); Cancer Research United Kingdom; the Cariplo Foundation; Center for Disease Control and Prevention (USA), Centre for Medical Systems Biology (CMSB); the Chief Scientist Office of the Scottish Government; Clinical Nutrition Research Unit of Maryland (P30 DK072488); Danish National Research Foundation; Danish Pharmacists’ Fund; the Egmont Foundation; Erasmus Medical Center; Erasmus University; Estonian Government (SF0180142s08); the European Commision (212111 BBMRI, 205419 ECOGENE, 201413 ENGAGE, HEALTH-F2-2008-201865 - GEFOS, HEALTH-F2-2008-35627, HEALTH-F4-2007-201413, HEALTH-F4-2007-201550 HYPERGENES, 245536 OPENGENE, TREAT-OA, GenomEUtwin Project QLG2-CT-2002-01254, EU/QLRT-2001-01254; ERC-230374); European Union framework program 6 EUROSPAN project (LSHG-CT-2006-018947, LSHM-CT-2003-503041); European Regional Development Fund; Faculty of Biology and Medicine of Lausanne, Switzerland; Fondazione Compagnia di San Paolo Health Ministry, Framingham Heart Study (N01-HC-25195); GENEVA Coordinating Center (U01HG004446); German Federal Ministry of Education and Research; German National Genome Research Network (NGFN-2 and NGFNPlus: 01GS0823); Giorgi-Cavaglieri Foundation; GlaxoSmithKline; Health Fund of the Danish Health Insurance Societies; Helmholtz Zentrum München-German Research Center for Environmental Health; Hjartavernd (the Icelandic Heart Association); Italian Ministry of Health (ICS110.1/RF97.71, RF-FSR-2007-647201); Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International (JDRF); Leenaards Foundation; March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation; the Medical Research Council (G0000934, G0500539, G0701863); National Cancer Institute (CA40356, CA98233, P01CA087969, P01CA055075, CA047988, CA63464, CA54281, CA136792, CA089392, CA104021); Munich Center of Health Sciences (MC Health, LMUinnovativ); National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (572613 and 003209); National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (HL 043851, HL087679, HL69757, N01-HC-55015, N01-HC-55016, N01-HC-55018, N01-HC-55019, N01-HC-55020, N01-HC-55021, N01-HC-55022, R01HL087641, R01HL59367, R01HL086694, RC2 HL102419); National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI); National Institute of Aging (263 MD 9164, 263 MD 821336, N.1-AG-1-1, N.1-AG-1-2111, N01-AG-5-0002, AG-16592, Genetics of Reproductive Life Period and Health Outcomes - R21AG032598); National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases and National Institute on Aging ((NIAMS/NIA) R01 AR/AG 41398); National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (HD-061437); National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK, R01DK058845, U01 DK062418); National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA); National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID); National Institute on
Drug Abuse (NIDA); National Institutes of Health (AA07535, AA10248, AA13320, AA13321, AA13326, AA14041, HHSN268200782096C, M01 RR-00750, MH66206, N01-AG-12100, N01-AG-1-2109, P01-AG-18397, R01-088119, R01-DA013423, RFAHG006033, U01DE018993, U01DE018903, U01HG004422, U01HG004446, U01HL72515, U01 HL84756, U01HG004399, U01HG004402, U01HG004415, U01HG004423, U01HG004436, U01HG004438, U01HG004402, U01HG004446, U01HG004726, U01HG004728, U01HG004729, U01HG004735, U01HG004738, U01HG04424, U10AA008401, U54RR025204-01, UL1RR025005, UL1 RR025774, Z01CP010200, HHSN268200625226C); the National Institute for Health Research Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre; Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (904-61-193, 575-25-006, 480-04-004, 56-464-14192, NWO 480-05-003, 175.010.2005.011, 911-03-012, 014-93-015); Netherlands Genomic Initiative (NGI, 050-060-810), National Institute on Aging (NIA) Intramural Research Program; and Laboratory of Neurogenetics; US National Institutes of Health Genes, Environment and Health Initiative; Republic of Croatia Ministry of Science, Education and Sports (108-1080315-0302); Robert Dawson Evans Endowment; the Royal Society, Royal Swedish Academy of Science; State of Bavaria, Germany; Susan G. Komen Breast Cancer Foundation; Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF); Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation; Swedish Ministry of Higher Education and Research; Swedish Research Council; Swedish Society of Medicine; Swiss National Science Foundation (Ref: 33CSCO-122661, 3100AO-116323/1); the University of Bristol, University of Maryland General Clinical Research Center (M01 RR 16500); the Wellcome Trust (068545/Z/02, 076467/Z/05/Z, 077016/Z/05/Z, 89061/Z/09/Z, strategic award 079895); Western Australian DNA Bank; Western Australian Genetic Epidemiology Resource (see Supplementary Note for extended acknowledgments).