Thermal inactivation of Bacillus anthracis spores in cow's milk

Sa Xu, Theodore P. Labuza, Francisco Diez-Gonzalez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

40 Scopus citations


Decimal reduction time (time to inactivate 90% of the population) (D) values of Bacillus anthracis spores in milk ranged from 3.4 to 16.7 h at 72°C and from 1.6 to 3.3 s at 112°C. The calculated increase of temperature needed to reduce the D value by 90% varied from 8.7 to 11.0°C, and the Arrhenius activation energies ranged from 227.4 to 291.3 kJ/mol. Six-log-unit viability reductions were achieved at 120°C for 16 s. These results suggest that a thermal process similar to commercial ultrahigh-temperature pasteurization could inactivate B. anthracis spores in milk.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4479-4483
Number of pages5
JournalApplied and environmental microbiology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2006


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