Aerosol deposition (AD) is a coating process wherein aerosol particles are impacted on a target substrate. There are fundamental differences between the AD process (cold impact), where particle translational kinetic energy is high and thermal energy is low, and thermal spray deposition (thermal impact), where translational energy is lower but thermal energy is high. To better compare cold and thermal impact effects on particles, we carried out molecular dynamics simulations using yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) nanoparticles on YSZ substrates as a model system. We performed cold impact simulations at 300 K with variable impact velocity in the 500 ms−1–1500 ms−1 range to understand how increasing translational kinetic energy affects thermal energy and mechanical evolution. We then performed thermal impact simulations at variable temperature and impact velocity, but where the total kinetic energy of the nanoparticle was equivalent to that of a 300 K, 1000 ms−1 impact. In cold impact, the temperature increases in YSZ nanoparticles at a rate of 1013–1014Ks−1, and large temperature gradients result. Conversely, in thermal impact, nanoparticle temperatures remain uniform. The temperature gradients during cold impact coincide with plastic deformation in nanoparticles, while with larger thermal energies, plastic deformation is reduced.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
G.S. was supported by DE-AR0001094 while carrying out the simulations described in this award. The authors gratefully acknowledge the Minnesota Supercomputing Institute (MSI) at the University of Minnesota for providing high-performance computational resources.
© 2022 Elsevier B.V.
- Aerosol deposition
- Room-temperature impact consolidation
- Yttria-stabilized zirconia