Results are presented from finite element analysis of the Czochralski (CZ) and Liquid Encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) crystal growth processes based on a thermal-capillary model which governs the heat transfer in the system simultaneously with setting the shapes of the melt/solid interface, the melt and encapsulant menisci, and the radius of a steadily growing crystal. Calculations are performed for the small-scale growth of silicon (CZ) and gallium arsenide (LED). The effects of melt volume and crucible position relative to the heater on the radius of the crystal and the shape of the melt/solid interface are predicted for the CZ system, and the importance of including an accurate representation of the melt meniscus for modelling the process is demonstrated. The additional effect of an encapsulant layer on heat transfer is treated for the LEC method for the cases of totally transparent and opaque encapsulant. The responses of these LEC prototype systems are examined for changes in pull rate and encapsulant volume.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors are grateful for partial support of this research to the Microgravity Sciences Program of the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration, to the National Science Foundation (through a Graduate Fellowship to J.J.D.) and to the Camille and Henry Dreyfus Foundation for a Teacher—Scholar Grant to R.A.B.