The therapeutic monitoring of patients who take antipsychotic drugs can be both challenging and rewarding. Antipsychotics have been in clinical use for over 30 years; yet, their complex pharmacology is not fully understood and parallels our infant knowledge of human brain chemistry. The art of successful therapeutic drug monitoring depends on the clinician's knowledge of basic pharmacology, an understanding of psychiatric disorders, and a sensitivity for careful patient observation. In addition, a thorough history, well thought out goals, and reasonable recovery expectations are essential. Antipsychotic drugs are never curative and should be used judiciously for indications where positive results outweigh the risks of adverse effects. This article will provide the reader with sound, practical knowledge of how to monitor these drugs in any clinical setting.