The within host dynamics of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection in cattle: Where time and place matter Modeling Johne's disease: From the inside out Dr Ad Koets and Prof Yrjo Grohn

Ad P. Koets, Shigetoshi Eda, Srinand Sreevatsan

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

52 Scopus citations

Abstract

Johne's disease or paratuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosis (MAP), occurs in domestic and wild animals worldwide, causing a significant economic loss to livestock industries. After a prolonged incubation time, infected cattle shed MAP bacilli into feces and spread the disease to an uninfected animal population. It is largely unknown how (or whether) the interplay between the pathogen and the host immunity determines timing of shedding after the long incubation time. Such information would provide an understanding of pathogenesis in individual animals and the epidemiology of MAP infection in animal populations. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of bovine Johne's disease pathology, pathogenesis, immunology and genetics. We discuss knowledge gaps that direly need to be addressed to provide a science-based approach to diagnostics and (immuno)prophylaxis. These knowledge gaps are related to anatomical/clinical manifestation of MAP invasion, interaction of bacteria with phagocytes, granuloma formation, shedding, establishment and kinetics of adaptive immune responses in the pathogenesis of the disease. These topics are discussed at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels with special attention to the within host dynamics including the temporal and the spatial context relevant for the various host-pathogen interactions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number61
JournalVeterinary research
Volume46
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 19 2015

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