The VIVA trial: Vascular endothelial growth factor in ischemia for vascular angiogenesis

Timothy D. Henry, Brian H. Annex, George R. McKendall, Michael A. Azrin, John J. Lopez, Frank J. Giordano, P. K. Shah, James T. Willerson, Raymond L. Benza, Daniel S. Berman, C. Michael Gibson, Alex Bajamonde, Amy Chen Rundle, Jennifer Fine, Edward R. McCluskey

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941 Scopus citations


Background - Recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor protein (rhVEGF) stimulates angiogenesis in animal models and was well tolerated in Phase I clinical trials. VIVA (Vascular endothelial growth factor in Ischemia for Vascular Angiogenesis) is a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of intracoronary and intravenous infusions of rhVEGF. Methods and Results - A total of 178 patients with stable exertional angina, unsuitable for standard revascularization, were randomized to receive placebo, low-dose rhVEGF (17 ng · kg-1 · min-1, or high-dose rhVEGF (50 ng · kg-1 · min-1) by intracoronary infusion on day 0, followed by intravenous infusions on days 3, 6, and 9. Exercise treadmill tests, angina class, and quality of life assessments were performed at baseline, day 60, and day 120. Myocardial perfusion imaging was performed at baseline and day 60. At day 60, the change in exercise treadmill test (ETT) time from baseline was not different between groups (placebo, +48 seconds; low dose, +30 seconds; high dose, +30 seconds). Angina class and quality of life were significantly improved within each group, with no difference between groups. By day 120, placebo-treated patients demonstrated reduced benefit in all three measures, with no significant difference compared with low-dose rhVEGF. In contrast, high-dose rhVEGF resulted in significant improvement in angina class (P=0.05) and nonsignificant trends in ETT time (P=0.15) and angina frequency (P=0.09) as compared with placebo. Conclusions - rhVEGF seems to be safe and well tolerated. rhVEGF offered no improvement beyond placebo in all measurements by day 60. By day 120, high-dose rhVEGF resulted in significant improvement in angina and favorable trends in ETT time and angina frequency.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1359-1365
Number of pages7
Issue number10
StatePublished - Mar 18 2003


  • Angina
  • Angiogenesis
  • Growth substances
  • Heart disease
  • Ischemia


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