S-antigen is a highly pathogenic retinal autoantigen for the induction of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). EAU is predominately a T cell mediated autoimmune disease of the uveal tract and retina of the eye and the pinealocytes of the pineal gland. Using synthetic peptides it has been possible to identify several B cell and T cell epitopes in the molecule. In addition, synthetic peptides derived from proteins of diverse origin with amino acid sequence homology to pathogenic regions of S-antigen induce an EAU which is indistinguishable from the disease induced by native S-antigen. These studies aid in the understanding of immune mechanisms in EAU and provide a basis for the pathogenesis of uveitis in humans.