The use of proteomic approaches in investigating diseases is continuing to expand and has started to provide answers to substantial gaps in our understanding of disease pathogenesis as well as in the development of effective strategies for the early diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Biophysical techniques form a crucial part of the advanced proteomic techniques currently used and include mass spectrometry and protein separation techniques, such as two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography. The application of biophysical proteomic techniques in the study of disease includes delineation of altered protein expression, not only at the whole-cell or tissue levels, but also in subcellular structures, protein complexes, and biological fluids. These techniques are also being used for the discovery of novel disease biomarkers, exploration of the pathogenesis of diseases, development of new diagnostic methodologies, and identification of new targets for therapeutics. Proteomic techniques also have the potential for accelerating drug development through more effective strategies for evaluating a specific drug's therapeutic effects and toxicity. This article discusses the application of biophysical proteomic techniques in delineating cardiovascular disease and other diseases, as well as the limitations and future research directions required for these techniques to gain greater acceptance and have a larger impact.
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Acknowledgments The authors' work was supported by NIH grant HL096819 (AVG) and American Heart Association grant 0835335N (AVG).
- Biophysical techniques
- Gel electrophoresis
- Liquid chromatography
- Mass spectrometry