Food stamps are a policy topic of considerable current interest in the USA. In addition, the US programme offers other countries a working example of this particular approach to food assistance and nutrition improvement. This article reviews the history, performance, fundamentals, current reform measures, and future alternatives of the programme. Although food stamps have not solved the nutrition problem in the USA, they have served reasonably well as a food assistance and income supplement programme. If comprehensive welfare reform is enacted in the USA, a food stamp programme designed to maximize its nutritional impact is advocated.