Background The pandemic spread of antibiotic resistance increases the likelihood of ineffective empirical therapy. The recently emerged fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli sequence type (ST) 131-H30R subclone (H30) is a leading cause of multidrug-resistant urinary tract infection (UTI) and bloodstream infection worldwide. Methods We studied the relative impact of H30 on the likelihood that bacteria isolated from urine of urgent care patients would be resistant to the empirically prescribed antibiotic regimen for UTI. Results Of 750 urinalysis-positive urine samples from urgent care patients with suspected UTI, 306 (41%) yielded E. coli, from 35 different clonal groups (clonotypes). H30 predominated (14% prevalence overall), especially among older patients (age ≥70 years: 26%) and those with diabetes (43%) or urinary catheterization (60%). Resistance to the empirically selected antibiotic regimen occurred in 16% (40/246) of patients overall, 28% (20/71) of older patients, 30% (8/27) of patients with diabetes, 60% (3/5) of catheterized patients, and 71% (22/30) of those with H30. H30's contribution to such mismatched antibiotic selection was 55% overall, 70% among older patients, and 100% among patients with diabetes or a urinary catheter. Among patients with ≥2 of these factors (older age, diabetes, or urinary catheter), 24% of all urinalysis-positive urine samples yielded H30, with a 92% likelihood of resistance to the selected empirical therapy. Conclusions The multidrug-resistant H30 subclone of E. coli ST131 is responsible for the great majority of mismatched empirical antibiotic prescriptions for suspected UTI at an urgent care clinic among patients ≥70 years old or with diabetes or urinary catheterization.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Financial support. This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health (grant numbers R01AI106007 to E. V. S. and R41AI116114 to ID Genomics, Inc); the Office of Research and Development, Medical Research Service, Department of Veterans Affairs (grant number 1 I01 CX000192 01 to J. R. J.); the Partnership for Innovation Award, Kaiser Permanente Washington (KPWA, formerly Group Health) Foundation; and Development Fund Award, KPWA Research Institute.
- Escherichia coli ST131- H 30
- clonal diagnostics
- empiric antibiotic therapy
- urgent care
- urinary tract infections