The tribological behavior of micellar copper oxide in machining and drilling tests was determined. The minimum cutting force when using test fluids was about half that when using cutting fluids without copper additives, and cutting tool life was increased by up to four times. The soft-core reverse micelles (RMs) formed in oil-based fluids and hard-core RMs in water-based fluids are most important in transferring additives during tribochemical processes. The formation of a copper tribofilm takes place during the friction process and disintegration of the RMs takes place in a tribochemical reaction:Cu2++2etribo-→Cu 0creating copper tribofilms at the contact of the tool and the workpiece can reduce cutting forces and the wear of cutting tools.
- Hard-core reverse micelles
- Metalworking water-based fluids