The TIR1 protein of Arabidopsis functions in auxin response and is related to human SKP2 and yeast Grr1p

Max Ruegger, Elizabeth Dewey, William M. Gray, Lawrence Hobbie, Jocelyn Turner, Mark Estelle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

490 Scopus citations


Genetic analysis in Arabidopsis has led to the identification of several genes that are required for auxin response. One of these genes, AXR1, encodes a protein related to yeast Aos1p, a protein that functions to activate the ubiquitin-related protein Smt3p. Here we report the identification of a new gene called TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE 1 (TIR1). The tir1 mutants are deficient in a variety of auxin-regulated growth processes including hypocotyl elongation and lateral root formation. These results indicate that TIR1 is also required for normal response to auxin. Further, mutations in TIR1 display a synergistic interaction with mutations in AXR1, suggesting that the two genes function in overlapping pathways. The TIR1 protein contains a series of leucine-rich repeats and a recently identified motif called an F box. Sequence comparisons indicate that TIR1 is related to the yeast protein Grr1p and the human protein SKP2. Because Grr1p and other F- box proteins have been implicated in ubiquitin-mediated processes, we speculate that auxin response depends on the modification of a key regulatory protein(s) by ubiquitin or a ubiquitin-related protein.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)198-207
Number of pages10
JournalGenes and Development
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 15 1998


  • Arabidopsis
  • Auxin response
  • F-box protein
  • Human SKP2
  • TIR1
  • Yeast Grr1p


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