The time course of changes in blood and brain catecholamines, catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT), ammonia, and amino acids leading to convulsion by high pressure oxygen breathing (OHP) in rats has been investigated. Brain catecholamines were suppressed by OHP. They changed in phase with brain COMT concentration and consequently were not due to the action of this degrading enzyme. Convulsive actions seem not to be influenced by brain catecholamine concentration. Blood adrenaline concentrations are, however, significantly elevated both prior to and during convulsions. In both brain and blood, ammonia concentration increases, glutamate decreases, and glutamine-aspargine increases. It is proposed that the efficacy of the glutamate-glutamine ammonia buffering system in blood and brain is important in the prevention of the onset of convulsions but that when brain γ-aminobutyric acid is depressed to critical levels, convulsions result.