The theory of the trigger, the bridge and the transmigration in the pathogenesis of acquired cholesteatoma

Marcos V. Goycoolea, Marcelo M. Hueb, David Muchow, Michael M. Paparella

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


The purpose of the study was to evaluate factors in the otitis media process that could play a role in the pathogenesis of acquired cholesteatoma. The study was divided in two parts: firstly the temporal bones of 75 cats and 15 chinchillas with induced otitis media, and 78 human bones with otitis media were evaluated. Special emphasis was placed on epithelial breaks. These breaks were commonly observed, leaving areas of connective tissue of the mucoperiostium in direct contact with the middle ear effusion. As these changes progressed, the effusion became organized, serving as a bridge for granulation tissue. In later stages these areas became totally or partially covered with epithelium. Areas of epithelial breaks became connected to each other through the organized effusion. Cholesteatomas in humans seem to spread using the connective tissue as scaffolding. Secondly, we reviewed 15 chinchillas in which a chemically modified membrane was placed leading from the external auditory canal to the promontory, through a tympanic membrane perforation. Squamous epithelial migration with cholesteatoma formation occurred through the tympanic membrane perforation, collagen membrane, organized effusion and granulation tissue in 53.5% of the experimental animals. The authors propose the theory that for transmigration of squamous epithelium to occur, a trigger (inflammatory process) and a bridge (granulation tissue and organized effusion) are needed in a predisposed subject.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)244-248
Number of pages5
JournalActa Oto-Laryngologica
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 1 1999


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