The subgingival microbiome, systemic inflammation and insulin resistance: The Oral Infections, Glucose Intolerance and Insulin Resistance Study

Ryan T. Demmer, Alexander Breskin, Michael Rosenbaum, Aleksandra Zuk, Charles Leduc, Rudolph Leibel, Bruce Paster, Moïse Desvarieux, David R. Jacobs, Panos N. Papapanou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

34 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Inflammation might link microbial exposures to insulin resistance. We investigated the cross-sectional association between periodontal microbiota, inflammation and insulin resistance. Methods: The Oral Infections, Glucose Intolerance and Insulin Resistance Study (ORIGINS) enrolled 152 diabetes-free adults (77% female) aged 20–55 years (mean = 34 ± 10). Three hundred and four subgingival plaque samples were analysed using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray to measure the relative abundances of 379 taxa. C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-α and adiponectin were assessed from venous blood and their z-scores were summed to create an inflammatory score (IS). Insulin resistance was defined via the HOMA-IR. Associations between the microbiota and both inflammation and HOMA-IR were explored using multivariable linear regressions; mediation analyses assessed the proportion of the association explained by inflammation. Results: The IS was inversely associated with Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria and positively associated with Firmicutes and TM7 (p-values < 0.05). Proteobacteria levels were associated with insulin resistance (p < 0.05). Inflammation explained 30–98% of the observed associations between levels of Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria or Firmicutes and insulin resistance (p-values < 0.05). Eighteen individual taxa were associated with inflammation (p < 0.05) and 22 with insulin resistance (p < 0.05). No findings for individual taxa met Bonferroni-adjusted statistical significance. Conclusion: Bacterial measures were related to inflammation and insulin resistance among diabetes-free adults.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)255-265
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of clinical periodontology
Volume44
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2017

Keywords

  • C-reactive protein
  • adiponectin
  • diabetes
  • inflammation
  • insulin resistance
  • interleukin-6
  • microbiome
  • microbiota
  • periodontal
  • tumour necrosis factor-α

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