Objectives: The objectives of this article are to (1) identify key methodological issues related to investigating the effects of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) for prescription drugs, (2) highlight opportunities and challenges that these issues pose, and (3) provide suggestions to address these challenges and opportunities from a social and administrative pharmacy perspective. Methods: Through a review of existing literature and consultation with research colleagues, we identified 3 broad issues regarding the study of DTCA for prescription drugs: (1) the importance of problem formulation, (2) the role of health behavior and decision-making perspectives, and (3) data collection and data analysis challenges and opportunities. Based upon our findings, we developed recommendations for future research in this area. Results: Clear problem formulation will be instructive for prioritizing research needs and for determining the role that health behavior and decision-making perspectives can serve in DTCA research. In addition, it appears that cluster bias, nonlinear relationships, mediating/moderating effects, time effects, acquiescent response, and case mix are particularly salient challenges for the DTCA research domain. Conclusions: We suggest that problem formulation, selection of sound theories upon which to base research, and data collection and data analysis challenges are key methodological issues related to investigating the effects of DTCA for prescription drugs.