The suppressor of TCR signaling (Sts) proteins, Sts-1 and Sts-2, are a pair of closely related signaling molecules that belong to the histidine phosphatase (HP) family of enzymes by virtue of an evolutionarily conserved C-terminal phosphatase domain. HPs derive their name from a conserved histidine that is important for catalytic activity and the current evidence indicates that the Sts HP domain plays a critical functional role. Sts-1HP has been shown to possess a readily measurable protein tyrosine phosphatase activity that regulates a number of important tyrosine-kinase-mediated signaling pathways. The in vitro catalytic activity of Sts-2HP is significantly lower than that of Sts-1HP, and its signaling role is less characterized. The highly conserved unique structure of the Sts proteins, in which additional domains, including one that exhibits a novel phosphodiesterase activity, are juxtaposed together with the phosphatase domain, suggesting that Sts-1 and -2 occupy a specialized intracellular signaling niche. To date, the analysis of Sts function has centered predominately around the role of Sts-1 and -2 in regulating host immunity and other responses associated with cells of hematopoietic origin. This includes their negative regulatory role in T cells, platelets, mast cells and other cell types, as well as their less defined roles in regulating host responses to microbial infection. Regarding the latter, the use of a mouse model lacking Sts expression has been used to demonstrate that Sts contributes non-redundantly to the regulation of host immunity toward a fungal pathogen (C. albicans) and a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen (F. tularensis). In particular, Sts-/- animals demonstrate significant resistance to lethal infections of both pathogens, a phenotype that is correlated with some heightened anti-microbial responses of phagocytes derived from mutant mice. Altogether, the past several years have seen steady progress in our understanding of Sts biology.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was funded by the National Institutes of Health: R01AI141592 (N.C., J.B.F.) and R21AI156238 (N.C., J.B.F.). We thank the Stony Brook University Department of Microbiology and Immunology for additional support.
© 2023 by the authors.
- Candida albicans
- Francisella tularensis
- histidine phosphatase
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article