Employment, career advancement, and financial independence are highly valued in the United States. As expectations, they are often instilled at a young age and incentivized throughout adulthood. Despite their importance, employment and economic sufficiency continue to be out of reach for most people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Over the last quarter century, extensive research and effort has been committed to understanding and improving these phenomena. This paper summarizes this employment research base by reviewing the literature on the effectiveness of the current employment support system, employment-specific interventions, and the economics and cost benefits of employment for people with IDD. Recommendations and directions for future research are also presented.
- Career advancement
- Economic self-sufficiency
- Intellectual and developmental disabilities
- State of the science