A consecutive series of 3044 patients who underwent BMT at the University of Minnesota over a 25 year period were reviewed for the post-transplant occurrence of infection caused by the yeast Malassezia furfur. Six patients, ranging in age from 1 to 54 years, developed Malassezia infections at a median of 59 days post transplant. Five patients were allogeneic transplant recipients; the remaining patient had undergone autologous transplantation. A spectrum of clinical manifestations of Malassezia infection was seen in these patients, including infections of mucosal surfaces and the skin, in addition to catheter-related fungemia. Unlike many of the other more common opportunistic fungal infections in immunocompromised patients, neutropenia and the use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials do not appear to be significant risk factors for Malassezia infections in the BMT population. In addition, disseminated fungal infection despite the presence of fungemia is uncommon. Lastly, the outcome of Malassezia infections in these patients, whether folliculitis, mucosal infection, or fungemia, appears to be quite favorable, in contrast to the poorer outcome with many other fungal infections in BMT patients. Catheter removal and discontinuation of intravenous lipids are important for a successful outcome in fungemic cases.
- Bone marrow transplantation