The Spanish version of the Teacher Efficacy for Inclusive Practice (TEIP) scale: Adaptation and psychometric properties

Maria C. Cardona-Molto, Renata Ticha, Brian H. Abery

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


The Teacher Efficacy for Inclusive Practice (TEIP) scale is an instrument created by Sharma et al. to assess efficacy of instruction in inclusive settings. Despite its increase in use, the TEIP has not been validated with a Spanish teacher population. The aim of this study was to: (1) analyze the psychometric properties and factor structure of the TEIP scale in a sample of Spanish preservice teachers (N = 475; 80% female, 20% male), and (2) examine the level of self-efficacy for inclusive practices that teachers experience when they graduate from their training programs. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indicate that a Spanish version (TEIP-ES) consisting of 15 items with a three-factor construct explains 64.65 percent of total variance. Item total-correlations ranged from .574 to .715, and factor loadings from .521 to .774. Convergent validity with measures of quality of teacher education (TE) programs and self-report of preparedness to teach in inclusive settings was good. In contrast, self-efficacy for inclusive practices was rated moderately low. Overall, these findings support the construct and convergent validity of the TEIP-ES and suggest that it is a useful instrument to measure self-efficacy for inclusion in Spanish preservice teacher populations. This manuscript reports the findings, discusses the implications for the improvement of TE programs, and suggests possible avenues for future related research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)809-823
Number of pages15
JournalEuropean Journal of Educational Research
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We would like to thank Umesh Sharma, Tim Loreman, and Chris Forlin for the permission granted to translate and administer the TEIP scale in this research that was funded by the Secretary of State of Education, Vocational Training, and Universities (Spanish Government) under I+D+i research project #PRX16/00530, and by the University of Alicante, research project #2015/00003670.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 The Author(s). Open Access - This article is under the CC BY license (


  • Cross-validation studies
  • Preservice teacher education
  • Spanish adaptation
  • TEIP scale
  • Teacher efficacy for inclusion


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