The social environment and walking behavior among low-income housing residents.

Caitlin E. Caspi, Ichiro Kawachi, S. V. Subramanian, Reginald Tucker-Seeley, Glorian Sorensen

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32 Scopus citations


Walking, both for leisure and for travel/errands, counts toward meeting physical activity recommendations. Both social and physical neighborhood environmental features may encourage or inhibit walking. This study examined social capital, perceived safety, and disorder in relation to walking behavior among a population of low-income housing residents. Social and physical disorder were assessed by systematic social observation in the area surrounding 20 low-income housing sites in greater Boston. A cross-sectional survey of 828 residents of these housing sites provided data on walking behavior, socio-demographics, and individual-level social capital and perceived safety of the areas in and around the housing site. Community social capital and safety were calculated by aggregating individual scores to the level of the housing site. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate prevalence rate ratios for walking less than 10 min per day for a) travel/errands, b) leisure and c) both travel/errands and leisure. 21.8% of participants walked for travel/errands less than 10 min per day, 34.8% for leisure, and 16.8% for both kinds of walking. In fully adjusted models, those who reported low individual-level social capital and safety also reported less overall walking and less walking for travel/errands. Unexpectedly, those who reported low social disorder also reported less walking for leisure, and those who reported high community social capital also walked less for all outcomes. Physical disorder and community safety were not associated with walking behavior. For low-income housing residents, neighborhood social environmental variables are unlikely the most important factors in determining walking behavior. Researchers should carefully weigh the respective limitations of subjective and objective measures of the social environment when linking them to health outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)76-84
Number of pages9
JournalSocial science & medicine (1982)
StatePublished - Mar 2013

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We gratefully acknowledge the efforts of the Health in Common Research Team: Anne Stoddard, Jennifer Allen, Amy Harley, Marty Alvarez-Reeves, Brianna Wadler, Brittany Bricen, Suze Jean-Felix, May Yang, David Wilson, and Ruth Lederman. The authors also thank the Cambridge Housing Authority, the Somerville Housing Authority, and the Chelsea Housing Authority, the resident participants and resident service coordinators at collaborating housing site. This research was supported by Grant 5R01CA111310-04 from the National Cancer Institute . Funding support for the lead author (CC) was also provided through the National Cancer Institute by the Harvard Education Program in Cancer Prevention and Control 5R25CA057711-17 and 2R25CA057711-16 . Funding agencies played no role in this study and the contents of this manuscript are solely the responsibility of the authors.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural


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