Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are an essential component of innate immunity, the first line of defense against invading pathogens. However, in addition to activating antimicrobial effector responses directly, TLRs lead to the induction of signals that control the activation of adaptive responses including autoimmune responses and allorecognition. This ability of TLR to control both innate and adaptive immunity has a broad applicability to the development of novel immunotherapies and antimicrobial strategies. This review discusses the basic biology of TLR and their contribution to renal disease.
- Kidney transplant
- Toll-like receptors