The Role of Serum Calcium Level in Intracerebral Hemorrhage Hematoma Expansion: Is There Any?

Mostafa Jafari, Mario Di Napoli, Yvonne H. Datta, Eric M. Bershad, Afshin A. Divani

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating form of stroke, with a high rate of mortality and morbidity. Even with the best current medical or surgical interventions, outcomes remain poor. The location and initial hematoma volume are strong predictors of mortality. Hematoma expansion (HE) is a further marker of poor prognosis that may be at least partly preventable. Several risk factors for HE have been identified, including baseline ICH volume, anticoagulation, and computed tomography angiography spot signs. Recent studies have shown the correlation of serum calcium (Ca++) levels on admission with HE. Low serum Ca++ level has been associated with larger hematoma volume at the time of presentation, HE, and worse outcome. Although the causal and mechanistic links between low serum Ca++ level and HE are not well understood, several mechanisms have been proposed including coagulopathy, platelet dysfunction, and higher blood pressure (BP) in the context of low serum Ca++ level. However, low serum Ca++ level might be only a biomarker of the adaptive response due to acute inflammatory response following acute ICH. The purpose of the current review is to discuss the evidence regarding the possible role of low serum Ca++ level on HE in acute ICH.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)188-195
Number of pages8
JournalNeurocritical Care
Issue number1
StatePublished - Aug 15 2019


  • Hematoma expansion
  • Intracerebral hemorrhage
  • Ionized calcium
  • Serum calcium

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Review


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