High-frequency ventilation (HFV) uses small tidal volumes and extremely rapid ventilator rates. Despite the wealth of laboratory and clinical research on HFV, there are no established guidelines for prioritizing the use of HFV versus conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) in neonatal respiratory failure. Examination of the currently available randomized controlled trials and meta-analysis of HFV versus CMV does not demonstrate any clear benefit of HFV either as a primary mode or as a "rescue" mode of ventilation in neonates who have respiratory insufficiency. The current literature does support the preferential use of HFV over CMV in conjunction with inhaled nitric oxide to maximize oxygenation in hypoxemic respiratory failure, in particular, as a result of persistent pulmonary hypertension.
Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.