Fractionation and reconstitution/fortification techniques were utilised to study the role of gluten in Arabic bread. Glutens from two wheat cultivars of contrasting breadmaking quality were fractionated by dilute HCl into gliadin and glutenin. Gluten, gliadin and glutenin doughs from the good quality flour had higher G′ and lower tan δ values than those from the poor quality flour at all the frequencies examined. Interchanging the gliadin and glutenin fractions between the reconstituted flours showed that the glutenin fraction is largely responsible for differences in the breadmaking performance. Fortification of an average quality flour with the gliadin and glutenin fractions from the poor and good quality flours, at the levels of 1% and 2% (protein to flour mass), induced marked differences in the mechanical properties of bread. The resilience of the loaves was not adversely affected by the addition of gliadins and increased, with a concomitant significant (p<0.05) improvement in quality, at the 2% level of fortification with gliadins from the good quality flour. Addition of glutenin resulted in loaves with leather-like properties that became particularly apparent at the higher level of fortification; the observed deterioration in quality paralleled the increase in the elastic character of the doughs. It is suggested that highly-elastic doughs are not compatible with the rapid expansion of gases at the high-temperature short-time conditions employed in the baking of Arabic bread and that there exists a threshold in dough elasticity beyond which a rapid decline in quality takes place.
- Arabic bread
- Rheological properties