The ribosomal protein L34 gene from the mosquito, Aedes albopictus: Exon-intron organization, copy number, and potential regulatory elements

Ling Ling Niu, Ann M Fallon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


We describe the structural analysis of genomic DNA encoding ribosomal protein (rp) L34 from the mosquito, Aedes albopictus. Comparison of genomic DNA sequences encompassing approximately 8 kb with the rpL34 cDNA sequence showed that the gene contains three exons and two introns, encoding a primary transcript with a deduced size of 6196 nucleotides from the transcription start site to the polyadenylation site. Exon 1, which is not translated, measures only 45 bp, and is separated from Exon 2 by a 359 bp intron. Exon 2 measures 78 bp, and contains the AUG translation initiation codon 14 nucleotides downstream of its 5'-end. Downstream of Exon 2 is a 5270 bp intron, followed by the remainder of the coding sequence in Exon 3, which measures 444 bp including the polyadenylation signal. We used a novel PCR- based procedure to obtain 1.7 kb of DNA upstream of the rpL34 gene. Like the previously described Ae. albopictus rpL8 gene and various mammalian rp genes, the DNA immediately upstream of the rpL34 gene lacks the TATA box, and the rpL34 transcription initiation site is embedded in a characteristic polypyrimidine tract. The 5'-flanking DNA contained a number of cis-acting elements that potentially interact with transcription factors characterized by basic domains, zinc-coordinating DNA binding domains, helix-turn-helix motifs, and beta scaffold factors with minor groove contacts. Particularly striking was the conservation of an AP-4 binding site within 100 nucleotides upstream of the transcription initiation site in both Aal-rpL34 and Aal-rpL8 genes. Comparison of Southern hybridization signals using probes from the 5' and 3'-ends of the 5.3 kb second intron and the cDNA suggested that the Ae. albopictus rpL34 gene most likely occurs as a single expressed copy per haploid genome with restriction enzyme polymorphisms in the upstream flanking DNA and the likely presence of one or more pseudogenes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1105-1117
Number of pages13
JournalInsect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 1999

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by grant AI 20385 from the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, and by the University of Minnesota Experiment Station. This is publication number 99-1170009 from the University of Minnesota Experiment Station, St Paul, MN, USA.


  • Gene structure
  • Polymerase chain reaction
  • Ribosome
  • Transcription
  • Translation


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