The restriction factors of human immunodeficiency virus

Reuben S. Harris, Judd F. Hultquist, David T. Evans

Research output: Contribution to journalShort surveypeer-review

183 Scopus citations


Cellular proteins called "restriction factors" can serve as powerful blockades to HIV replication, but the virus possesses elaborate strategies to circumvent these barriers. First, we discuss general hallmarks of a restriction factor. Second, we review how the viral Vif protein protects the viral genome from lethal levels of cDNA deamination by promoting APOBEC3 protein degradation; how the viral Vpu, Env, and Nef proteins facilitate internalization and degradation of the virus-tethering protein BST-2/tetherin; and how the viral Vpx protein prevents the premature termination of reverse transcription by degrading the dNTPase SAMHD1. These HIV restriction and counter-restriction mechanisms suggest strategies for new therapeutic interventions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)40875-40883
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Issue number49
StatePublished - Nov 30 2012

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Copyright 2013 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

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