The replicability of the personality inventory for DSM-5 domain scale factor structure in U.S. and non-U.S. samples: A quantitative review of the published literature

Antonella Somma, Robert F. Krueger, Kristian E. Markon, Andrea Fossati

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

4 Scopus citations


The present study aimed at quantitatively synthesizing published studies on the replicability of the Personality Inventory for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5; PID-5) domain factor structure in U.S. and non-U.S. cultural contexts. A literature search was conducted, and 23 studies based on 25 samples (N = 24,240) were included. Seven studies provided data on the factor replicability of the PID-5 in the U.S. and 16 studies yielded PID-5 factor replicability data in non-U.S. countries. The majority (n = 17, 68.0%) of the studies were based on community/student samples. Median congruence coefficient (CC) values ranged from .92 to .98 in U.S. studies, and from .91 to .97 in non-U.S. studies. No significant effect of sample type, translation, and geographic area on CC values was observed. Meta-analytic structural equation modeling results supported the homogeneity of the PID-5 scale correlation matrices across both U.S. studies, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = .039, and non-U.S. studies, RMSEA = .045. Dimensionality analyses of the pooled correlation matrix provided evidence for a 5-factor structure of the PID-5 scales in both U.S. and non-U.S. studies; the resulting factor loading matrices were highly similar to the normative U.S. factor loading matrix. As a whole, our findings support the generalizability of the PID-5 factor structure, suggesting the replicability of Negative Affectivity, Detachment, Antagonism, and Psychoticism factors across different samples, translations, age groups, and nations. Further studies on samples from non-Western Europe countries, as well as from specific population, are needed before drawing definitive conclusions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)861-877
Number of pages17
JournalPsychological assessment
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2019



  • Alternative model of personality disorders
  • Cross-cultural replicability
  • Factor structure
  • Five-Factor Model
  • PID-5

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Review

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