The objective of this article is to examine internalized homonegativity (IH) in relation to aspects of well-being and several measures of clinical importance among men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) in 38 countries. The data were collected as part of the EMIS project. The multivariable regression analysis identified independent associations with IH for nongay identity, younger age, being closeted, limited gay social affiliation, and sexual unhappiness. IH was also positively associated with loneliness, inability to decline unwanted sex, and being less knowledgeable about HIV and HIV testing. These results provide evidence that homonegative internalization merits consideration as a predisposing factor in several aspects of ill health. There are also several clinical implications of this project, including: (1) Treatment of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) persons should address gay self-acceptance, as internalized homonegativity seems to be a predisposing factor in several aspects of ill health among this population, and (2) therapy that is used to help LGB persons accept and integrate a gay or lesbian identity seems particularly important for younger, nongay identified persons.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2015, © Rigmor C. Berg, Peter Weatherburn, Michael W. Ross, and Axel J. Schmidt. Published with license by Taylor & Francis.
- health-care needs
- internalized homonegativity
- mental health