The rapid development of high speed, resolution and precision in fMRI

David A. Feinberg, Essa Yacoub

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

92 Scopus citations


MRI pulse sequences designed to increase the speed and spatial resolution of fMRI have always been a hot topic. Here, we review and chronicle the history behind some of the pulse sequence ideas that have contributed not only to the enhancement of fMRI acquisition but also to diffusion imaging. (i) Partial Fourier EPI allows lengthening echo trains for higher spatial resolution while maintaining optimal TE and BOLD sensitivity. (ii) Inner-volume EPI renamed zoomed-EPI, achieves extremely high spatial resolution and has been applied to fMRI at 7. Tesla to resolve cortical layer activity and columnar level fMRI. (iii) An early non-BOLD approach while unsuccessful for fMRI created a diffusion sequence of bipolar pulses called 'twice refocused spin echo' now widely used for high-resolution DTI and HARDI neuronal fiber track imaging. (iv) Multiplexed EPI shortens TR to a few hundred milliseconds, increasing sampling rates and statistical power in fMRI.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)720-725
Number of pages6
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 15 2012

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work is supported in part by the National Institutes of Health (grants, R01 EB000331 , P41 RR08079 , RO1EB002009 , 1R44NS073417 and 5R44NS063537 ).


  • BOLD
  • Bipolar gradient
  • Columnar level
  • EPI
  • FMRI
  • Functional imaging
  • Inner volume
  • Layer specific
  • Multiband
  • Multiplexed EPI
  • Partial fourier
  • Resting state
  • SER
  • SIR
  • Simultaneous
  • Twice-refocused SE diffusion
  • Zoomed-EPI


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