The posttranslational addition of a single O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) to serine or threonine residues regulates numerous metazoan cellular processes. The enzyme responsible for this modification, O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), is conserved among a wide variety of organisms and is critical for the viability of many eukaryotes. Although OGTs with domain structures similar to those of eukaryotic OGTs are predicted for many bacterial species, the cellular roles of these OGTs are unknown. We have identified a putative OGT in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 that shows active-site homology and similar domain structure to eukaryotic OGTs. An OGT deletion mutant was created and found to exhibit several phenotypes. Without agitation, mutant cells aggregate and settle out of the medium. The mutant cells have higher free inorganic phosphate levels, wider thylakoid lumen, and differential accumulation of electron-dense inclusion bodies. These phenotypes are rescued by reintroduction of the wild-type OGT but are not fully rescued by OGTs with single amino acid substitutions corresponding to mutations that reduce eukaryotic OGT activity. S. elongatus OGT purified from Escherichia coli hydrolyzed the sugar donor, UDP-GlcNAc, while the mutant OGTs that did not fully rescue the deletion mutant phenotypes had reduced or no activity. These results suggest that bacterial eukaryote-like OGTs, like their eukaryotic counterparts, influence multiple processes.