The prospective association between periodontal disease and brain imaging outcomes: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study

Hamdi S. Adam, Kamakshi Lakshminarayan, Wendy Wang, Faye L. Norby, Thomas Mosley, Keenan A. Walker, Rebecca F. Gottesman, Katie Meyer, Timothy M. Hughes, James S. Pankow, Dean F. Wong, Clifford R. Jack, Souvik Sen, Pamela L. Lutsey, Jim Beck, Ryan T. Demmer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Aim: We investigate if periodontal disease is prospectively associated with cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative markers of dementia and Alzheimer's pathology. Materials and Methods: N = 1306 participants (Visit 5 mean age = 76.5 [standard deviation = 5.4] years) in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study with completed dental exams at Visit 4 underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging scans at Visit 5 while N = 248 underwent positron emission tomography scans. Participants were classified as edentulous or, among the dentate, by the modified Periodontal Profile Class. Brain volumes were regressed on periodontal status in linear regressions. Cerebrovascular measures and β-amyloid positivity were regressed on periodontal status in logistic regressions. Results: Periodontal disease was not associated with brain volumes, microhaemorrhages, or elevated β-amyloid. Compared with periodontally healthy individuals, odds ratios [95% confidence interval] for all-type infarcts were 0.37 [0.20, 0.65] for severe tooth loss and 0.56 [0.31, 0.99] for edentulous participants. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, periodontal disease was not associated with altered brain volumes, microhaemorrhages, or β-amyloid positivity. Tooth loss was associated with lower odds of cerebral infarcts.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)322-334
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of clinical periodontology
Volume49
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study has been funded in whole or in part with federal funds from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, under contract nos. (HHSN268201700001I, HHSN268201700002I, HHSN268201700003I, HHSN268201700005I, HHSN268201700004I). Neurocognitive data were collected by U012U01HL096812, 2U01HL096814, 2U01HL096899, 2U01HL096902, 2U01HL096917 from the NIH (NHLBI, NINDS, NIA, and NIDCD), and with previous brain MRI examinations funded by R01‐HL70825 from the NHLBI. The ARIC‐PET study was funded by the National Institute on Aging (R01AG040282). The ARIC Dental study was funded by NIH/NIDCR R01‐DE021418, R01‐DE021986, and NIH/NCRR UL1‐TR001111. This study was also supported by the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study Pre‐Doctoral Diversity Supplement NIH NHLBI‐CON000000080742 and Pre‐Doctoral T32 Cardiovascular Disease Training Supplement (PHS Grant number: 5T32 HL 7779–27). Funding information

Funding Information:
Hamdi S. Adam, Kamakshi Lakshminarayan, Faye L. Norby, Thomas Mosley, Keenan A. Walker, Rebecca F. Gottesman, Wendy Wang report none. Katie Meyer has a research grant from Balchem Corporation. Timothy M. Hughes, James S. Pankow report none. Dean F. Wong reports non‐monetary help from AVID/Lilly on NIH grant study, including Tau comparisons, some with AV‐45 (Florbetapir) anticipated for screening. Clifford R. Jack Jr. serves on an independent data monitoring board for Roche, has consulted for and served as a speaker for Eisai, and consulted for Biogen, but he receives no personal compensation from any commercial entity. He receives research support from NIH and the Alexander Family Alzheimer's Disease Research Professorship of the Mayo Clinic. Jim Beck reports none. The PPC‐Stages and computational algorithms, as well as the application to Stages and Grades, is protected under Copyright 2017–2018 with the University of North Carolina. Pamela L. Lutsey, Ryan T. Demmer report none.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd

Keywords

  • cohort studies
  • dementia
  • magnetic resonance imaging
  • periodontal diseases
  • positron-emission tomography

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

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