Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common diagnosis in children and adults. Human albinism is an uncommon genetic condition associated with visual impairment that may affect behavior. To determine if there is a relationship between albinism and ADHD, the prevalence of ADHD was examined among 78 children (age range, 4-18 years) and among 44 adults (age range, 19-79 years) with ocular or oculocutaneous albinism. ADHD was diagnosed in the pediatric population using a combination of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) criteria, Conners' Parent Rating Scale, and physician observation. Adults were diagnosed using the Utah criteria for ADHD as confirmed by physician history and interview. Seventeen children (22.7% [17 of 75]) (3 children with existing diagnoses of pervasive developmental disorder were identified but were not included in the data analysis) and 3 adults (6.8%) met the criteria for ADHD. The combined hyperactivity and impulsivity subtype of ADHD was most common, accounting for 50% of the diagnoses. Binocular best-corrected visual acuity and genetic type of albinism were not found to correlate with a diagnosis of ADHD. The prevalence of ADHD among children and adults with albinism is more frequent than that reported among the general population and is not related to binocular best-corrected visual acuity.
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