It is assumed that platelets in diseased conditions share similar properties to platelets in healthy conditions, although this has never been examined in detail for myocardial infarction (MI). We examined platelets from patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non–ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) compared with platelets from healthy volunteers to evaluate for differences in platelet phenotype and function. Platelet activation was examined and postreceptor signal transduction pathways were assessed. Platelet-derived plasma biomarkers were evaluated by receiver operator characteristic curve analysis. Maximum platelet activation through the thromboxane receptor was greater in STEMI than in NSTEMI but less through protease-activated receptor 1. Extracellular-signal related-kinase 5 activation, which can activate platelets, was increased in platelets from subjects with STEMI and especially in platelets from patients with NSTEMI. Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) protein content and enzymatic activity were several-fold greater in platelets with MI than in control. Mean plasma MMP9 concentration in patients with MI distinguished between STEMI and NSTEMI (area under curve [AUC] 75% [confidence interval (CI) 60–91], P = 0.006) which was superior to troponin T (AUC 66% [CI 48–85, P = 0.08), predicting STEMI with 80% sensitivity (95% CI 56–94), 90% specificity (CI 68–99), 70% AUC (CI 54–86, P < 0.0001), and NSTEMI with 50% sensitivity (CI 27–70), 90% specificity (CI 68–99), 70% AUC (CI 54–86, P = 0.03). Platelets from patients with STEMI and NSTEMI show differences in platelet surface receptor activation and postreceptor signal transduction, suggesting the healthy platelet phenotype in which antiplatelet agents are often evaluated in preclinical studies is different from platelets in patients with MI.