The Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory

A. Aab, P. Abreu, M. Aglietta, E. J. Ahn, I. Al Samarai, J. N. Albert, I. F M Albuquerque, I. Allekotte, J. Allen, P. Allison, A. Almela, J. Alvarez Castillo, J. Alvarez-Muñiz, R. Alves Batista, M. Ambrosio, A. Aminaei, L. Anchordoqui, S. Andringa, C. Aramo, V. M. ArandaS. Argirò, K. Arisaka, F. Arneodo, F. Arqueros, T. Asch, H. Asorey, P. Assis, J. Aublin, M. Ave, M. Avenier, G. Avila, N. Awal, A. M. Badescu, M. Balzer, K. B. Barber, A. Barbosa, N. Barenthien, J. Bäuml, C. Baus, J. J. Beatty, K. H. Becker, J. A. Bellido, S. BenZvi, C. Berat, T. Bergmann, M. E. Bertaina, P. L. Biermann, R. Bilhaut, P. Billoir, S. G. Blaess, M. Blanco, C. Bleve, H. Blümer, M. Boháčová, H. Bolz, D. Boncioli, C. Bonifazi, R. Bonino, M. Boratav, N. Borodai, F. Bracci, J. Brack, I. Brancus, A. Bridgeman, P. Brogueira, W. C. Brown, P. Buchholz, A. Bueno, S. Buitink, M. Buscemi, K. S. Caballero-Mora, B. Caccianiga, L. Caccianiga, D. Camin, M. Candusso, L. Caramete, R. Caruso, A. Castellina, A. Castera, G. Cataldi, L. Cazon, R. Cester, A. G. Chavez, A. Chiavassa, J. A. Chinellato, M. Chiosso, J. Chudoba, M. Cilmo, P. D J Clark, R. W. Clay, G. Cocciolo, R. Colalillo, A. Coleman, L. Collica, E. Colombo, S. Colonges, M. R. Coluccia, R. Conceiçáo, F. Contreras, M. J. Cooper, J. Coppens, A. Cordier, B. Courty, S. Coutu, C. E. Covault, J. Cronin, A. Curutiu, R. Dallier, B. Daniel, S. Dasso, K. Daumiller, B. R. Dawson, R. M. De Almeida, M. De Domenico, C. De Donato, S. J. De Jong, J. R T De Mello Neto, I. De Mitri, J. De Oliveira, V. De Souza, K. D. De Vries, L. Del Peral, O. Deligny, H. Dembinski, N. Dhital, C. Di Giulio, A. Di Matteo, J. C. Diaz, M. L. Díaz Castro, F. Diogo, C. Dobrigkeit, W. Docters, J. C. D'Olivo, P. Dolron, A. Dorofeev, Q. Dorosti Hasankiadeh, M. T. Dova, D. D'Urso, J. Ebr, R. Engel, L. N. Epele, M. Erdmann, M. Erfani, C. O. Escobar, J. Espadanal, A. Etchegoyen, P. Facal San Luis, H. Falcke, K. Fang, G. Farrar, A. C. Fauth, N. Fazzini, A. P. Ferguson, M. Fernandes, A. Ferrero, B. Fick, J. M. Figueira, A. Filevich, A. Filipčič, B. D. Fox, E. D. Fraenkel, O. Fratu, M. M. Freire, U. Fröhlich, B. Fuchs, W. Fulgione, T. Fujii, B. García, D. Garcia-Gamez, D. Garcia-Pinto, G. Garilli, A. Gascon Bravo, F. Gate, H. Geenen, H. Gemmeke, B. Genolini, P. L. Ghia, U. Giaccari, M. Giammarchi, K. Gibbs, M. Giller, N. Giudice, H. Glass, M. Gómez Berisso, P. F. Gómez Vitale, P. Gonçalves, J. G. Gonzalez, N. González, B. Gookin, D. Góra, J. Gordon, A. Gorgi, P. Gorham, W. Gotink, P. Gouffon, S. Grebe, N. Griffith, A. F. Grillo, T. D. Grubb, J. Grygar, N. Guardone, F. Guarino, G. P. Guedes, L. Guglielmi, R. Habraken, M. R. Hampel, P. Hansen, D. Harari, S. Harmsma, T. A. Harrison, S. Hartmann, J. L. Harton, A. Haungs, T. Hebbeker, D. Heck, P. Heimann, A. E. Herve, G. C. Hill, C. Hojvat, N. Hollon, E. Holt, P. Homola, J. R. Hörandel, A. Horneffer, M. Horvat, P. Horvath, M. Hrabovský, D. Huber, H. Hucker, T. Huege, M. Iarlori, A. Insolia, P. G. Isar, I. Jandt, S. Jansen, C. Jarne, J. A. Johnsen, M. Josebachuili, A. Kääpä, O. Kambeitz, K. H. Kampert, P. Kasper, I. Katkov, B. Kégl, B. Keilhauer, A. Keivani, J. Kelley, E. Kemp, R. M. Kieckhafer, H. O. Klages, M. Kleifges, J. Kleinfeller, J. Knapp, A. Kopmann, R. Krause, N. Krohm, O. Kröpmer, D. Kuempel, N. Kunka, D. La Hurd, L. Latronico, R. Lauer, M. Lauscher, P. Lautridou, S. Le Coz, M. S A B Leão, D. Lebrun, P. Lebrun, M. A. Leiguide Oliveira, A. Letessier-Selvon, I. Lhenry-Yvon, K. Link, R. López, A. López Casado, K. Louedec, J. Lozano Bahilo, L. Lu, A. Lucero, M. Ludwig, M. Malacari, S. Maldera, M. Mallamaci, J. Maller, D. Mandat, P. Mantsch, A. G. Mariazzi, V. Marin, I. C. Mariş, G. Marsella, D. Martello, L. Martin, H. Martinez, N. Martinez, O. Martínez Bravo, D. Martraire, J. J. Masías Meza, H. J. Mathes, S. Mathys, J. Matthews, J. A J Matthews, G. Matthiae, D. Maurel, D. Maurizio, E. Mayotte, P. O. Mazur, C. Medina, G. Medina-Tanco, R. Meissner, M. Melissas, V. B B Mello, D. Melo, E. Menichetti, A. Menshikov, S. Messina, R. Meyhandan, S. Mićanović, M. I. Micheletti, L. Middendorf, I. A. Minaya, L. Miramonti, B. Mitrica, L. Molina-Bueno, S. Mollerach, M. Monasor, F. Montanet, C. Morello, M. Mostafá, C. A. Moura, M. A. Muller, G. Muller, S. Muller, R. Mussa, G. Navarra, S. Navas, P. Necesal, L. Nellen, A. Nelles, J. Neuser, P. H. Nguyen, D. Nicotra, M. Niechciol, L. Niemietz, T. Niggemann, D. Nitz, D. Nosek, V. Novotny, L. Nožka, L. Ochilo, T. Ohnuki, F. Oikonomou, A. Olinto, M. Oliveira, V. M. Olmos-Gilbaja, N. Pacheco, D. Pakk Selmi-Dei, M. Palatka, J. Pallotta, N. Palmieri, P. Papenbreer, G. Parente, A. Parra, M. Patel, T. Paul, M. Pech, J. Pȩkala, R. Pelayo, I. M. Pepe, L. Perrone, E. Petermann, C. Peters, S. Petrera, P. Petrinca, Y. Petrov, J. Phuntsok, R. Piegaia, T. Pierog, P. Pieroni, M. Pimenta, V. Pirronello, M. Platino, M. Plum, A. Porcelli, C. Porowski, T. Porter, J. Pouryamout, J. Pouthas, R. R. Prado, P. Privitera, M. Prouza, C. L. Pryke, V. Purrello, E. J. Quel, S. Querchfeld, S. Quinn, R. Randriatoamanana, J. Rautenberg, O. Ravel, D. Ravignani, B. Revenu, J. Ridky, M. Risse, P. Ristori, V. Rizi, S. Robbins, M. Roberts, W. Rodrigues De Carvalho, G. Rodriguez Fernandez, J. Rodriguez Rojo, M. D. Rodríguez-Frías, D. Rogozin, G. Ros, J. Rosado, T. Rossler, M. Roth, E. Roulet, A. C. Rovero, S. J. Saffi, A. Saftoiu, F. Salamida, H. Salazar, A. Saleh, F. Salesa Greus, G. Salina, F. Sánchez, P. Sanchez-Lucas, C. E. Santo, E. Santos, E. M. Santos, F. Sarazin, B. Sarkar, R. Sarmento, R. Sato, N. Scharf, V. Scherini, H. Schieler, P. Schiffer, A. Schmidt, D. Schmidt, O. Scholten, H. Schoorlemmer, P. Schovánek, F. Schreuder, F. G. Schröder, A. Schulz, J. Schulz, F. Schüssler, J. Schumacher, S. J. Sciutto, A. Segreto, G. Sequeiros, M. Settimo, A. Shadkam, R. C. Shellard, I. Sidelnik, G. Sigl, O. Sima, A. ͆miałkowski, R. Šmída, A. G K Smith, G. R. Snow, P. Sommers, J. Sorokin, R. Speelman, H. Spinka, R. Squartini, Y. N. Srivastava, S. Stanič, J. Stapleton, J. Stasielak, M. Stephan, A. Stutz, F. Suarez, T. Suomijärvi, A. D. Supanitsky, M. S. Sutherland, M. Sutter, J. Swain, Z. Szadkowski, M. Szuba, O. A. Taborda, A. Tapia, D. Tcherniakhovski, A. Tepe, V. M. Theodoro, C. Timmermans, W. Tkaczyk, C. J. Todero Peixoto, G. Toma, L. Tomankova, B. Tomé, A. Tonachini, G. Torralba Elipe, D. Torres Machado, P. Travnicek, E. Trovato, T. N. Trung, V. Tunnicliffe, E. Tusi, R. Ulrich, M. Unger, M. Urban, J. F. Valdés Galicia, I. Valiño, L. Valore, G. Van Aar, P. Van Bodegom, A. M. Van Den Berg, S. Van Velzen, A. Van Vliet, E. Varela, B. Vargas Cárdenas, D. M. Varnav, G. Varner, R. Vasquez, J. R. Vázquez, R. A. Vázquez, D. Veberič, H. Verkooijen, V. Verzi, J. Vicha, M. Videla, L. Villaseñor, G. Vitali, B. Vlcek, H. Vorenholt, S. Vorobiov, L. Voyvodic, H. Wahlberg, O. Wainberg, P. Walker, D. Walz, A. A. Watson, M. Weber, K. Weidenhaupt, A. Weindl, F. Werner, S. Westerhoff, A. Widom, C. Wiebusch, L. Wiencke, T. Wijnen, B. Wilczyńska, H. Wilczyński, N. Wild, T. Winchen, G. Wörner, B. Wundheiler, S. Wykes, T. Yamamoto, T. Yapici, G. Yuan, A. Yushkov, B. Zamorano, E. Zas, M. Zavrtanik, A. Zepeda, J. Zhou, Y. Zhu, M. Zimbres Silva, B. Zimmermann, M. Ziolkowski, F. Zuccarello

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

499 Scopus citations

Abstract

The Pierre Auger Observatory, located on a vast, high plain in western Argentina, is the world's largest cosmic ray observatory. The objectives of the Observatory are to probe the origin and characteristics of cosmic rays above 1017 eV and to study the interactions of these, the most energetic particles observed in nature. The Auger design features an array of 1660 water Cherenkov particle detector stations spread over 3000 km2 overlooked by 24 air fluorescence telescopes. In addition, three high elevation fluorescence telescopes overlook a 23.5 km2, 61-detector infilled array with 750 m spacing. The Observatory has been in successful operation since completion in 2008 and has recorded data from an exposure exceeding 40,000 km2 sr yr. This paper describes the design and performance of the detectors, related subsystems and infrastructure that make up the Observatory.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)172-213
Number of pages42
JournalNuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
Volume798
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 21 2015

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
A six-month design workshop was held in 1995 that produced a Design Report [32] with a discussion of the science, a conceptual design and cost estimate. The design report became the basis for funding proposals by the collaborating countries. Subsequent to the workshop a team of scientists evaluated numerous prospective sites in both hemispheres. Preferred sites were selected in the southern and northern hemispheres by the collaboration in 1995 and 1996, respectively. At the direction of the funding agencies, the project was to begin by building the Observatory in the southern hemisphere.

Funding Information:
We are very grateful to the following agencies and organizations for financial support: Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica , Fundación Antorchas , Gobierno De La Provincia de Mendoza , Municipalidad de Malargüe , NDM Holdings and Valle Las Leñas , in gratitude for their continuing cooperation over land access, Argentina; the Australian Research Council ; Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) , Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (FINEP) , Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ) , São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) Grants # 2010/07359-6 and # 1999/05404-3 , Ministério de Ciência e Tecnologia (MCT) , Brazil; MSMT-CR LG13007 , 7AMB14AR005 , CZ.1.05/2.1.00/03.0058 and the Czech Science Foundation Grant 14-17501S , Czech Republic; Centre de Calcul IN2P3/CNRS, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) , Conseil Régional Ile-de-France , Département Physique Nucléaire et Corpusculaire (PNC-IN2P3/CNRS) , Département Sciences de l׳Univers (SDU-INSU/CNRS) , Institut Lagrange de Paris, ILP LABEX ANR-10-LABX-63 , within the Investissements d׳Avenir Programme ANR-11-IDEX-0004-02 , France; Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF) , Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) , Finanzministerium Baden-Württemberg , Helmholtz Alliance for Astroparticle Physics (HAP) , Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren (HGF) , Ministerium für Wissenschaft und Forschung, Nordrhein Westfalen , Ministerium für Wissenschaft, Forschung und Kunst, Baden-Württemberg , Germany; Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF) , Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) , Ministero dell׳Istruzione, dell׳Università e della Ricerca (MIUR) , Gran Sasso Center for Astroparticle Physics (CFA) , CETEMPS Center of Excellence , Italy; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT) , Mexico; Ministerie van Onderwijs, Cultuur en Wetenschap , Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO) , Stichting voor Fundamenteel Onderzoek der Materie (FOM) , Netherlands; National Centre for Research and Development , Grant nos. ERA-NET-ASPERA/01/11 and ERA-NET-ASPERA/02/11 , National Science Centre , Grant nos. 2013/08/M/ST9/00322 , and 2013/08/M/ST9/00728 and HARMONIA 5 – 2013/10/M/ST9/00062 , Poland; Portuguese national funds and FEDER funds within COMPETE – Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade through Fundação para a Ciencia e a Tecnologia , Portugal; Romanian Authority for Scientific Research ANCS , CNDI-UEFISCDI partnership projects nos. 20/2012 and nr. 194/2012 , project nos. 1/ASPERA2/2012 ERA-NET , PN-II-RU-PD-2011-3-0145-17 , and PN-II-RU-PD-2011-3-0062 , the Minister of National Education, Programme for research – Space Technology and Advanced Research – STAR , project number 83/2013 , Romania; Slovenian Research Agency , Slovenia; Comunidad de Madrid , FEDER funds , Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia , Xunta de Galicia , European Community 7th Framework Program , Grant no. FP7-PEOPLE-2012-IEF-328826 , Spain; Science and Technology Facilities Council , United Kingdom; Department of Energy , Contract no. DE-AC02-07CH11359 , DE-FR02-04ER41300 , DE-FG02-99ER41107 and DE-SC0011689 , National Science Foundation , Grant no. 0450696 , The Grainger Foundation , USA; NAFOSTED , Vietnam; Marie Curie-IRSES/EPLANET, European Particle Physics Latin American Network , European Union 7th Framework Program , Grant no. PIRSES-2009-GA-246806 ; and UNESCO .

Keywords

  • Air fluorescence detectors
  • High energy cosmic rays
  • Hybrid observatory
  • Pierre Auger Observatory
  • Water Cherenkov detectors

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