The patterned mires of the Red Lake Peatland, northern Minnesota: vegetation, water chemistry, and landforms

Paul H. Glaser, Gerald A. Wheeler, Eville Gorham, Herbert E. Wright

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

187 Scopus citations


A study was performed to classify the major vegetational types of the Red Lake Peatland (Minnesota), to determine the relationships of the vegetation to major landforms and their water chemistry, and to investigate the possibility of currently changing vegetational forms. In raised bogs and ovoid islands where waters were of low pH, low Ca(+2) concentration, and low conductivity, two types of vegetation occurred. On strings, flats and teardrop islands which were characterized by high pH, low Ca(+2) concentration, and low conductivity, three types of fen vegetation were found. Poor fens occurred where waters had intermediate pH ranges, Ca(+2) concentrations, and conductivities. Surface drainage seemed to be important in the maintenance of mire patterns, as drainage ditches had localized effects on vegetation and landforms. (Small-FRC)
Original languageUndefined/Unknown
Pages (from-to)575-599
Number of pages25
JournalJournal of Ecology
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1981


  • Chemistry of lake waters/sediments and wetland waters/peats in relation to controlling environmental factors

Cite this