The PADQOL: Development and validation of a PAD-specific quality of life questionnaire

Diane J Treat-Jacobson, Ruth A Lindquist, Dawn R. Witt, Laura N Kirk, Erica Schorr, Ulf G Bronas, Cynthia S Davey, Judith G. Regensteiner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

48 Scopus citations


Understanding the impact of peripheral artery disease (PAD) requires broad evaluation of how functional limitations of PAD affect patients' perceptions of health-related quality of life (HRQL). The objective of this study was to describe the development, testing, and psychometric properties of the PAD Quality of Life Questionnaire (PADQOL). The PADQOL was developed in three steps: (1) interviews of symptomatic PAD patients provided content of the initial questionnaire; (2) co-administration with the SF-36 (a 36-item short-form health survey), Walking Impairment Questionnaire, and Profile of Mood States examined construct validity; and (3) a three-phased factor analysis identified factors and shortened the questionnaire. Data analyses from 297 symptomatic PAD patients resulted in a 38-item questionnaire of five factors: Social relationships and interactions, Self-concept and feelings, Symptoms and limitations in physical functioning, Fear and uncertainty, and Positive adaptation (α = 0.92-0.73) and items related to sexual function, intimate relationships and employment. Between-instrument correlations established construct validity. In conclusion, PADQOL is a validated measure to assess the disease-specific physical, psychosocial and emotional effects of PAD for research and practice.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)405-415
Number of pages11
JournalVascular Medicine (United Kingdom)
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 2012

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported in part by a grant from the Society for Vascular Nursing.


  • intermittent claudication
  • peripheral arterial disease
  • quality of life
  • questionnaires


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