Antibodies were prepared against bacterially expressed Commelina yellow mottle badnavirus (CoYMV) proteins. Antiserum against purified virions and antiserum against the C-terminus of the putative coat protein-encoding region of ORF III detected the same virus-specific proteins, indicating that the CoYMV coat protein is encoded in ORF III. In addition to the two major terms of the coat protein (37 and 39 kDa), several high molecular weight virus-specific proteins were detected when virions were isolated without chloroform treatment. These proteins are possible ORF III polyprotein processing intermediates and might be associated with 'immature' virions which are eliminated by chloroform treatment. As predicted by the genomic sequence, a 20-kDa virus-specific protein was detected by an antiserum raised against the C-terminus of the putative ORF I protein. Results of filtration experiments suggest that the ORF I protein is equally associated with virions and with plant component(s). The association between the ORF I protein and the virions was further confirmed using immunosorbent electron microscopy and immunogold labeling. The ORF I protein was not detected in virus preparations treated with chloroform, and colocalized with virions containing immature coat protein on sucrose-cesium sulfate density gradients, suggesting that it is associated with immature virions. An antiserum raised against the putative ORF II gene product detected a 15-kDa virus-specific protein whose association with the virions was unaffected by chloroform treatment. The ORF II protein was found to be sensitive to some protease(s) that copurified with the virions, and protease inhibitors preventing this degradation have been identified.