The innate immune system constitutes the first line of host defense against pathogens. “Nonself”, such as exogenous particles or pathogens, triggers an inflammatory response. Inflammasomes are molecular platforms activated upon cellular infection or stress that trigger the maturation of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β. Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway, the most extensively studied, appears to be the corner stone of many inflammatory diseases, including Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis and gout. Cryopyrine-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS) are NLRP3 inflammasome-associated diseases. Canakinumab (Ilaris®) is the only drug approved for CAPS treatment in France. Targeted therapy against NLRP3 inflammasome and IL-1β might be the new anti-inflammatory drugs.