Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease marked by focal demyelinating inflammatory plaques throughout the CNS. Neuro-ophthalmologic sequelae are common in MS and may arise from the disease itself or from treatment of the disease. Both afferent and efferent functions may be affected. Despite much progress, our understanding of the pathophysiology of MS, and the efficacy of our available treatments, remain inadequate. Here, we review the chief neuro-ophthalmologic abnormalities associated with MS and discuss the emerging diagnostic and therapeutic advances that are likely to further our understanding of MS and its treatment.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the National Multiple Sclerosis Society. No funding source had a role in the preparation of this paper or the decision to submit it for publication.
- internuclear ophthalmoplegia
- multiple sclerosis
- neuromyelitis optica
- optic neuritis
- skew deviation
- vestibulo-ocular reflex