The multifactorial role of the 3Rs in shifting the harm-benefit analysis in animal models of disease

Melanie L. Graham, Mark J. Prescott

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

119 Scopus citations


Abstract Ethics on animal use in science in Western society is based on utilitarianism, weighing the harms and benefits to the animals involved against those of the intended human beneficiaries. The 3Rs concept (Replacement, Reduction, Refinement) is both a robust framework for minimizing animal use and suffering (addressing the harms to animals) and a means of supporting high quality science and translation (addressing the benefits). The ambiguity of basic research performed early in the research continuum can sometimes make harm-benefit analysis more difficult since anticipated benefit is often an incremental contribution to a field of knowledge. On the other hand, benefit is much more evident in translational research aimed at developing treatments for direct application in humans or animals suffering from disease. Though benefit may be easier to define, it should certainly not be considered automatic. Issues related to model validity seriously compromise experiments and have been implicated as a major impediment in translation, especially in complex disease models where harms to animals can be intensified. Increased investment and activity in the 3Rs is delivering new research models, tools and approaches with reduced reliance on animal use, improved animal welfare, and improved scientific and predictive value.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number69843
Pages (from-to)19-29
Number of pages11
JournalEuropean Journal of Pharmacology
StatePublished - Jul 15 2015

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 Elsevier B.V.


  • Animal welfare
  • Drug development
  • Reduction
  • Refinement
  • Replacement
  • Utilitarianism


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