The MMPI-2-RF personality psychopathology five (PSY-5-RF) scales: Development and validity research

Allan R. Harkness, John L. McNulty, Jacob A. Finn, Shannon M. Reynolds, Susan M. Shields, Paul Arbisi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


This article describes the development, internal psychometric, and external validation studies on scales designed to measure the Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) from MMPI-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) items. Diverse and comprehensive data sets, representing various clinical and nonclinical populations, were classified into development and validation research samples. Item selection, retention, and exclusion procedures are detailed. The final set of PSY-5-RF scales contain 104 items, with no item overlap between scales (same as the original MMPI-2 PSY-5 scales), and no item overlap with the Demoralization scale. Internal consistency estimates are comparable to the longer MMPI-2 PSY-5 scales. Appropriate convergent and discriminant validity findings utilizing various self-report, collateral rating, and record review data are reported and discussed. A particular emphasis is offered for the unique aspects of the PSY-5 model: psychoticism and disconstraint. The findings are connected to the broader PSY-5 literature and the recommended review of systems (Harkness, Reynolds, & Lilienfeld, this issue) presented in this series of articles.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)140-150
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Personality Assessment
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 4 2014


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