Main conclusion: Arabidopsis PHS1, initially known as an actor of cytoskeleton organization, is a positive regulator of flowering in the photoperiodic and autonomous pathways by modulating both COand FLCmRNA levels. Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation is a major type of post-translational modification, controlling many biological processes. In Arabidopsis thaliana, five genes encoding MAPK phosphatases (MKP)-like proteins have been identified. Among them, PROPYZAMIDE HYPERSENSITIVE 1 (PHS1) encoding a dual-specificity protein tyrosine phosphatase (DsPTP) has been shown to be involved in microtubule organization, germination and ABA-regulated stomatal opening. Here, we demonstrate that PHS1 also regulates flowering under long-day and short-day conditions. Using physiological, genetic and molecular approaches, we have shown that the late flowering phenotype of the knock-out phs1-5 mutant is linked to a higher expression of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). In contrast, a decline of both CONSTANS (CO) and FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) expression is observed in the knock-out phs1-5 mutant, especially at the end of the light period under long-day conditions when the induction of flowering occurs. We show that this partial loss of sensitivity to photoperiodic induction is independent of FLC. Our results thus indicate that PHS1 plays a dual role in flowering, in the photoperiodic and autonomous pathways, by modulating both CO and FLC mRNA levels. Our work reveals a novel actor in the complex network of the flowering regulation.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
- FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC)
- FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)