The Minnesota impedance cardiograph - theory and applications

W. G. Kubicek, F. J. Kottke, M. U. Ramos, R. P. Patterson, D. A. Witsoe, J. W. Labree, W. Remole, T. E. Layman, H. Schoening, J. T. Garamela

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

403 Scopus citations


This system has evolved into a noninvasive device to derive information relating to the function of various parts of the cardiovascular system. The only contact with the body is via 4 aluminium coated Mylar electrode strips, 2 around the neck and 2 around the abdomen. The outer 2 electrodes are connected to a constant current oscillator that delivers a small current at a high frequency. The other 2 electrodes are information electrodes, connected to a high impendance input amplifier and detecting circuits. During the cardiac cycle a small impedance change occurs and a differentiator extracts the first time derivative of this impendance change, dZ/dt. In flowmeter studies on animals it was found that a linear relation obtained between peak dZ/dt and peak ejection rate. This formed the basis of extracting the stroke volume and cardiac contractility indices from thoracic impedance changes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)410-416
Number of pages7
JournalBio-Medical Engineering
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 1974


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