The March of IDES: Early History of Intrusion-Detection Expert Systems

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As part of a broader prehistory and history of early intrusion-detection systems (IDSs), this article focuses on the first such system, Intrusion Detection Expert System (IDES), which was developed in the second half of the 1980s at SRI International (and SRI's follow-on Next Generation Intrusion Detection Expert System, or NIDES, in the early-to-mid 1990s). It also briefly recounts other early IDSs and the National Security Agency's Computer Misuse and Anomaly Detection (CMAD) Program, and it analyzes the disproportionately high contributions of women scientists to leadership in IDS research and development relative to other computer security specialties.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)42-54
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Annals of the History of Computing
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 1 2016

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 1992-2011 IEEE.


  • Intrusion Detection Expert System (IDES)
  • Mitre
  • Next-Generation Intrusion Detection Expert System (NIDES)
  • SRI
  • Sytek
  • computer security
  • computer security history
  • history of computing
  • software history


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