The long-term outcomes of ocular tics in a pediatric neuro-ophthalmology practice

Esther R. Bisker, Collin M. McClelland, Lawrence W. Brown, Grant T. Liu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Purpose To describe the outcome and comorbidities of ocular tics in children evaluated by a pediatric neuro-ophthalmologist. Methods The medical records of all consecutive patients in a pediatric neuro-ophthalmology practice diagnosed with ocular tics (eye rolling, blinking, and widening) were retrospectively reviewed. Children with known secondary causes for tics were excluded. Patients, parents, and/or guardians were contacted by telephone to obtain follow-up information. Results A total of 43 patients were included in the retrospective cohort, with a mean age of 7.8 ± 4.8 years at diagnosis. Thirty-two patients participated in the follow-up survey, with an average follow-up of 6.1 ± 3.9 years. None of the 43 children carried a diagnosis of Tourette syndrome or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) at presentation; 1 child had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). At follow-up, 14 of the 32 children (44%) had persistent ocular tics, 3 (9%) reported new nonocular motor tics, 5 (16%) reported new vocal tics, and 4 (13%) developed both nonocular motor and vocal tics. One patient (3%) was formally diagnosed with Tourette syndrome during the follow-up interval, and 3 (9%) were diagnosed with ADHD. Conclusions Almost half of the children with ocular tics at presentation had persistent ocular tics on follow-up. New nonocular motor and vocal tics occurred in several patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)31-35
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of AAPOS
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2014


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